Reading Sample 18- CRIMES (B2)
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- Published: Wednesday, 21 February 2018 09:14
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Every community in the world recognizes certain activities as crimes. Because of this, each has developed its own way of dealing with crimes and has chosen a number of different punishments to match them. Therefore, society identifies the crimes, administers justice, and then imposes suitable punishments.
However, it is surprising how much various societies of the world differ in their understanding concerning crime, justice, and punishment. What may be a crime in one country is often perfectly acceptable in another. For example, as you may know, jaywalking, that is not crossing the road at the proper crossing place at the proper time, is illegal in some areas of the world such as North America, but in other areas, it is quite legal. Besides deciding what is legal and what is illegal, societies must decide whether a crime is petty or serious. For example, carrying a gun is a very serious offence in some countries, but a very petty one in others.
Similarly, ways of administering justice differ from country to country. In some countries, a person is considered innocent until he is proved guilty, but in other countries, the opposite is true. In other words, in the former, it is the job of the authorities to prove that a person has committed a crime whereas, in the latter, it is the individual's task to prove his innocence.
Crimes vary and systems of justice vary, but the greatest variation between countries is in the methods of punishment that they use. For example, a person convicted of theft in some parts of the Middle East might face a severe penalty, whereas the same crime would receive a relatively lenient punishment in some Scandinavian countries. Denmark provides a good example of the more lenient approach to crime and punishment. About half the people sent to prison there go to what is called an 'open prison'. In these prisons, the inmates are allowed to wear their own clothes, provide their own food, bring their own furniture, and have their own radios or television sets in the cell.
After four weeks in a Danish open prison, a prisoner is normally entitled to a 'holiday' outside the prison. Usually, he is allowed out of prison for one weekend every three weeks. Of course, prisoners do not have to leave their prison every three weeks - they can save up their weekends away and take a break of up to eight days if they prefer. Prisoners in open prison in Denmark are also allowed out for a whole range of activities such as buying clothes, visiting the doctor, or simply going for a walk with their visitors. If a prisoner needs to leave the prison for educational purposes - such as attending a course or receiving technical training - then, in certain circumstances, he may be allowed to spend the night outside the prison.
1. The authour gives the examples of jaywalking in the second paragraph to ...............
2. Why does punishment for a certain crime vary from country to country?
3. In what way does Denmark differ from some Middle Eastern countries?
4. How long does a Danish prisoner have to spend in prison before he can go out for the first time?
5. What does "each" refer to in paragraph 1?
6. What does "one" refer to in paragraph 2?
7. What does "latter" refer to in paragraph 3?
8. The word "lenient" in paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to ..................
9. The word "inmate" in paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to ..................
TRUE / FALSE
- T / F The method of punishment administered is the biggest difference in the court of law among countries.
- T / F In Denmark all prisoners are sent to open prisons.
- T / F In some Danish prisons, uniforms are not required.
- T / F Prisoners in Denmark can spend the night outside their prison anytime they want to.
1. show that societies differ in their understanding concerning crime, justice, and punishment.
2. Societies differ in their understanding of what is legal and what is illegal and whether a crime is petty or serious.
3. Crimes vary and systems of justice vary, but the greatest variation between countries is in the methods of punishment that they use. For example, a person convicted of theft in some parts of the Middle East might face a severe penalty, whereas the same crime would receive a relatively lenient punishment in some Scandinavian countries.
4. 4 weeks
5. every community
7. The way of administering justice in which a person is considered guilty until he is proved innocent.